EYMP2: Promote learning and development in early years accordance with the EYFS

Level 3 Children & Young People's Workforce

Areas of learning and development in the EYFS programme:

3 Prime areas of learning and development:

  • Physical development
  • Communication and language development
  • Personal, social and emotional

4 Specific areas of learning and development:

  • Literacy
  • Mathematics
  • Expressive Arts and Design
  • Understanding of the World

Interconnection between the areas of development:

1. Learning to acquire language enables child to develop reading and writing skills.
Learning to read and write can help child to enhance language and strengthen communication skills

Singing nursery rhymes and telling jokes or stories can help child to produce sound, speech and develop vocabulary, and learn to count (communication, language, maths). Being familiar with words and numbers can be transferred to promote reading and writing.
Being able to read and write can reinforce conversation and listening skills and increase vocabulary and gain understanding of the world.

2. Combination of physcical skills, communication and language skills can help to acquire social skills
Having social skills can help to reinforce communications and language skills

Playing a basic board game (snake and ladder) can help acquire vocabulary and learn to play cooperatively which can promote social skills such as learning to take turn and follow rules.
Learning to play together cooperatively, follow rules and take turns and help to maintain relationships,therefore enhancing communication skills.

3. An activity that focuses on the knowledge and understanding of the world area of development can help to develop physical, language and emotional development and visa versa.

Activity: planting seeds or bulb to grow a flowering plant (understanding of the world)

Using child size spade and kneeling to dig help to develop muscle in the hands and legs. Counting the seeds, planting and giving water help to develop fine motor skills and maths and learning new vocabulary.

Conversly, having fine and gross motor skills and being familiar with words like water and seeds and learning to count can help gain knowledge of how plants grow.

4. Developing physical skills can help to acquire personal and emotional skills
Personal and emotional skills can help to improve physical development

Being able to tie up shoe lace or fasten coat button can help child become independent (personal development)
Learning to be independent : tie up shoe lace or button up coat can help child to be more confident ( personal development)
Developing confidence and being happy can motivate child to play or engage with new activities that promote physical development

5. Painting and drawing activity (Expressive art and design)

Holding a paint brush and using it help to develop fine motor skills (physical)
Exploring, choosing and mixing colours and adding water promote learning of names of colours (language) and develop confidence
Producing a picture will give them a sense of achievement and will feel good (emotional development)
Painting and drawing help to express emotions (emotional development)

From the above activity, child will learn and develop in the area of creativty (Expressive art and design)

6. How playing jigsaw puzzle helps to promote development

Picking and holding the pieces help to develop fine motor skills (physical)
Thinking and solving which piece fits help to develop intellectual skills

From the above play, child will gain understanding of the world

7. Playing with water, sand, spade and bucket

Holding the spade,filling the bucket with sand help to develop hand muscles (physical)
Filling the bucket with sand help child learn about quantity
Playing with the sand help to learn about texture
Building a sand castle will help child to be creative

From the above play, child will learning about mathematics and understanding of the world

8. Singing or story telling

Singing nursery rhymes and telling jokes or stories can help child to produce sound, speech and develop vocabulary, and learn to count (communication, language, maths).

Being able to talk, know the name of objects and able to count can help develop child's confidence (personal development) which in turn can promote literacy and mathematics skills as the child will feel poised enough to learn to read, write and work with numbers.

9. Listening to stories

They answer h‘how’ and ‘why’ questions in response to stories
Through listening, child will learn to pay attention and respond appropriately.
Listening will help child to follow instructions too.

Can you think of stories that harness children curiosity?

Outcomes for the early years learning and development


Moving and handling

Children show good control and co-ordination in large and small movements. They move confidently in a range of ways, safely negotiating space.
They handle equipment and tools effectively, including pencils for writing.

Health and self-care

Children know the importance for good health of physical exercise, and a healthy diet, and talk about ways to keep healthy and safe.
They manage their own basic hygiene and personal needs successfully, including dressing and going to the toilet independently.

Personal, Social and Emotional

Self-confidence and self-awareness.

Children are confident to try new activities, and say why they like some activities more than others.

They are confident to speak in a familiar group, will talk about their ideas, and will choose the resources they need for their chosen activities. They say when they do or don't need help.

Early learning goal – managing feelings and behaviour

Children talk about how they and others show feelings, talk about their own and others' behaviour, and its consequences, and know that some behaviour is unacceptable.
They work as part of a group or class, and understand and follow the rules. They adjust their behaviour to different situations, and take changes of routine in their stride.

Making relationships

Children play co-operatively, taking turns with others. They take account of one another's ideas about how to organise their activity.
They show sensitivity to others' needs and feelings, and form positive relationships with adults and other children.


Children read and understand simple sentences. They use phonic knowledge to decode regular words and read them aloud accurately. They also read some common irregular words.
They demonstrate understanding when talking with others about what they have read.


Children use their phonic knowledge to write words in ways which match their spoken sounds. They also write some irregular common words. They write simple sentences which can be read by themselves and others.
Some words are spelt correctly and others are phonetically plausible.



Children count reliably with numbers from one to 20, place them in order and say which number is one more or one less than a given number.
Using quantities and objects, they add and subtract two single-digit numbers and count on or back to find the answer. They solve problems, including doubling, halving and sharing.

Shape, space and measures

Children use everyday language to talk about size, weight, capacity, position, distance, time and money to compare quantities and objects and to solve problems.
They recognise, create and describe patterns. They explore characteristics of everyday objects and shapes and use mathematical language to describe them.

Understanding the world

People and communities

Children talk about past and present events in their own lives and in the lives of family members. They know that other children don't always enjoy the same things, and are sensitive to this.
They know about similarities and differences between themselves and others, and among families, communities and traditions.

The world

Children know about similarities and differences in relation to places, objects, materials and living things. They talk about the features of their own immediate environment and how environments might vary from one another.
They make observations of animals and plants and explain why some things occur, and talk about changes.


Children recognise that a range of technology is used in places such as homes and schools.
They select and use technology for particular purposes.

Expressive arts and design

Exploring and using media and materials

Children sing songs, make music and dance, and experiment with ways of changing them. They safely use and explore a variety of materials, tools and techniques, experimenting with colour, design, texture, form and function.

Being imaginative

Children use what they have learnt about media and materials in original ways, thinking about uses and purposes.
They represent their own ideas, thoughts and feelings through design and technology, art, music, dance, role play and stories.

Assessing and observing early years learning
and development outcomes:

Observation Techniques

Method Description Example
Narrative or descriptive Writing everything you see in detail. The data is factual.

Recording information continuously for half an hour or one hour.
Observing child playing with toys or playing with other children.

Recording what they say and how they respond to others.
Check list Pre-prepared list of skills or competencies that a child can do.

Suitable for checking physical development.
Threading beads
Drawing with crayons or pencil
Completing a 10 piece jigsaw puzzle
Cutting out shapes with scissors

Catching a ball
Climbing a frame
Riding a bike
Time sample Chart format is used to record specific and selected information at chosen time intervals.
E.g. observe and record every five minute interval within one hour or 15 minute intervals for half a day observation.
Frequency of playing with certain toys.

Observing children's mood in the mornings or in the afternoons.

Observing social behaviour every 15 minutes for 1 hour.

Observing behaviour at different play locations in the nursery: every 10 minutes for one hour

Observing behaviour at lunch time: every 5 minutes for half an hour.

Observing indoor or outdoor activities every 15 minutes over a period of 1 hour.
Event sample A chart format is used to record how often a specific action, incident or behaviour occurs Observe aggressive behaviour such as spitting, biting or hitting other children.

Observe emotional behaviour such as crying or sulking.
Target sample A record sheet is used to note the actions and responses of a particular child over a continuous period of time.

Observation is recorded every minute for 10 minutes.
Target sample is often used to learn about child's social and language interaction.
Identify another method that is used in your setting Describe another method used in your setting Give an example

Click on the pdf files below to see samples of 'observation forms':

Time sample
Event sample
Target child
Diary Observation Record

How are observations assessed?

  • Using the EYFS practice Guidance to check children's eary learning goals
  • Refer to developmental milestones
  • Use previous records to compare progress
  • Use child developmental theories to analyse observation
  • Use child's background data to evaluate behaviour

Observation assessment are used to:

  • Plan activities to support learning and development
  • Plan activities to promote learning and development
  • Plan activities to boost learning and development
  • Make referrals to professional
  • Work with parents and key workers to support learning and development

A child's observations, assessments and evaluations are compiled in a folder called 'Learning Journey / Learning Profile.