CYP Core 3.1: Understand child and young person's development

L3 Children & Young People's Workforce

All children's sequence of development is the same, however the pace at which they develop is different as it is influenced by personal, social, family and environmental experiences. To promote development and help children to reach their milestone, it is important that practitioners make observations and monitor their progress regularly. To promote children's well-being, it is also important to understand the behavioural changes that children manifest.

The table below outlines the different methods that can used to monitor children's development and behaviour

  • Milestones for standard measurement

  • Progress report

  • Information from carers

  • The assessment frameworks

  • Observation methods

The table below illustrates the various methods of observation:

Observation Methods

Method Description Example
Narrative or descriptive Writing everything you see in detail. The data is factual.

Recording information continuously for half an hour or one hour.
Observing child playing with toys or playing with other children.

Recording what they say and how they respond to others.
Check list Pre-prepared list of skills or competencies that a child can do.

Suitable for checking physical development.
Threading beads
Drawing with crayons or pencil
Completing a 10 piece jigsaw puzzle
Cutting out shapes with scissors

Catching a ball
Climbing a frame
Riding a bike
Time sample Chart format is used to record specific and selected information at chosen time intervals. Frequency of playing with certain toys. Observing children's mood in the mornings or in the afternoons.
Observing social behaviour every 15 minutes for 1 hour.

Observing behaviour at different play locations in the nursery:
every 10 minutes for one hour.
Observing behaviour at lunch time: every 5 minutes for half an hour.
Observing indoor or outdoor activities every 15 minutes over a period of 1 hour.
Event sample A chart format is used to record specific actions, incident or behaviour observed whenever it occurs. Observe aggressive behaviour such as spitting, biting or hitting other children.

Observe emotional behaviour such as crying or sulking.
Identify another method that is used in your setting Describe another method used in your setting Give an example

Factors affecting children's pattern of development

Factors Example Intervention
Disability Physical limb

Sensory e.g. hard of hearing or partially sighted
Positive attitudes – Paralympics
Recognition of achievements – medals and stickers Provide a safe learning environment in mainstream schools and nurseries.

User friendly surrounding for wheel chairs users eg ramp, lifts and practical support.

Sensory activities , use pictures , braille

Sensory room - music for partially sighted

Cultural Faith and religion for girls - barriers to engaging in physical activities such as sports and swimming which can stunt physical development.

Lack confidence and may not have any friends.
Learning needs Dyslexia


Asperger syndrome
Teaching assistant to support children with reading and writing

Provide colour lens or filter paper for reading.

Use diagrams and lots of pictures to convey knowledge.

Special schools and psychologist
Communication New in the country, not able to speak English Child may be hard of hearing.

Some children are shy or lack confidence.
Esol classes available to young people between the ages of 16-19 in colleges.

In the childcare setting, have translators.

have sign language available Use puppets, sing songs or nursery rhymes to promote language and communication.

allocate a buddy friend to new comers.

Use pictures and gestures to tell stories.

Speech therapist to teach children to speak.

Environmental Poverty – no heating or living in damp houses which can put child at potential risk of respiratory problems and hence child may not attend school regularly which will affect their education and lack of having friends or social life. Low income families can not afford computers or books for their children.
Schools can contact social housing

Schools can make referral to GPs

School can contact education dept to explore possibilities of temporary distant / home learning.

Join the library to loan books and have facilities to use computers.

Grant are available from local education authorities or colleges to help with paying for the books or stationary

Speech, language, communication delays and disorder

Importance of early identification of speech , language
and communication delays:

  • To make early referrals to speech and language therapist so that therapy can begin soon as possible. Late recognitions of children's inability to communication will have a negative effect in the other areas of child's development, for example, child may have difficulty socialising or have low self-esteem.

  • Introduction of early interventions may prevent long-term issues with communication in the wider context such as not being able to reading or write, therefore unable to get employment or feel isolated from the community.

  • Practitioners can concentrate on the development of language by planning and designing activities that specifically promote communication skills.

  • Carry out special observation to identify the barriers to communication, so that practitioners can remove the obstacles.


DFE (2014) Development Matters in the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS)

DFE (2014). Statutory framework for the early years foundation stage

DEF(2014). Early years (under 5s) foundation stage framework (EYFS)

DFE (2014) Keeping children safe in Out of hours provisions

DFE(2014) Early Years Outcomes

Parents - guide to EYFS (2014)

What to expect and when (2014)

The British Association for Early Childhood Education
(Supported by DFE)

Every Child Matters 2003)

Effective Pre-school and Primary Education 3-11 Project (2003-2008)

DFE (2008) Effective Pre-School and Primary Education 3-11 Project (EPPE 3-11)

Parliament (2003) Every Child Matters

Tassoni et al (2010) Level 3 Diploma Children and Young People's
Workforce (Early Learning and Childcare). Pearson: Harlow Essex

Caroline Meggit et al (2011) CACHE Level 3 Children and Young People's
Workforce Diploma: Early Learning and Child Care.
Hodder Education: London