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CYP 3.4: Health and Safety

Level 3 Children & Young People's Workforce

This unit is about children ‘s welfare; ensuring that they remain in good health, not harmed and are safe at all times from any risk of danger.

The Health and Safety at Work Act (1974) requires employers and employees to take responsibilities to keep themselves and others in the premises safe from any harm or risk of danger. Every educational and child care setting are responsible for creating a safe and healthy indoor and outdoor environment for all children, staff, parents and visitors.

Now imagine you are to build a new nursery or about to renovate an old nursery. What would you do and how would you go about designing and accident free surrounding which is toddler friendly, child-proof and green.

Action Ideal environment Examples
Conduct a survey Inspect building structure is safe - roof and walls

Damp free, infestation free

Dry rot free

Adequate ventilation

Adequate space indoor and outdoor

Toxic free material

Sanitary in place

Kitchen built for purpose

Running water, gas and electricity

Lighting, heating, fresh air and spacious


Garden Ground:

turf or concrete

Safe and sufficient space for running and riding a bike

Suitable area for installing slides and climbing frame
Implement Health and Safety

The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974

The Childcare Act 2006

The Children Act 1989

The Statutory Framework for EYFS

Carry out daily risk assessments

Site is well secured by fences and walls
Install a security system for entry
Install CCTV


Install laminated windows and doors
Fire resistant doors
Construct ground / flooring is even and easy to sweep
Setting must be clean

Room temperature
Weather conditions

Personal safety:

Age and capabilities of the children
Number of children allocated to one carer
Accommodating special needs of children
Door latches fitted at height children cannot reach

Fire safety precautions - extinguishers

Toilets - 10 : 1 ratio
Kitchen drawers and cupboards out of reach of children and with locks
Fit gate between main area and kitchen
Equipment safely used and stored
First Aid be available
Baby room temperature should be

Accident free play area for both younger and older children

Equipment for both older and young children that meets the safety regulations (CE mark or the kite mark on toys) and are stimulating.

Ramps and disabled toilets for wheel chair users.
Create a sensory room

Can you think of any other factors that can influence planning indoor and outdoor


Give examples

Monitoring and maintaining health and safety

Feature Policy Action
Carrying out daily assessments Check gates and doors are secure.

Checking toys and equipment are clean and not broken or damaged.

Floors and not wet or slippery.
If door do not lock properly, report to supervisor and arrange to have it fixed.

Clean the toys if dirty, repair is broken or discard and replace.

Wipe the floors.
Identify other daily risk assessment you would carry out in your setting.

Identify other policies in your setting.

What action would you take to reduce the risk of accidents.
Following policies and procedures. Security:

Visitor book and Visitor badges
Dropping and collecting children from nursery

Administering and storage of Medicine
First Aid available
Food hygiene and personal hygiene

Fire precautions Fire exit doors
If visitors have no identity and not expected by the staff then they must be denied access.

If someone else other than the parent collecting child. They must inform the nursery in advance and use a code word and new person must provide evidence of identity.

Parents must sign the consent form if child is to be given medicine giving correct information, dosage and time.

Anti-biotics must be stored in the fridge. All other medicine must be stored in a locked cupboard.

Wash hands before and after handling food. Use separate chopping boards for meat, fruit and vegetables.

Wear aprons and gloves for food handling and nappy changing.

Check temperature of fridge.
Meat should be stored at the bottom shelf of the fridge.

Fire extinguishers must be accessbile.
Regular fire drills must be carried out so that all staff and children are aware.
of what to do in the event of a fire.
Identify other policies and procedures in your setting. Identify other policies in your setting. What action would you take to reduce the risk of accidents.

Reasons for monitoring:

How are risk assessment monitored and reviewed:

Staff and visitors are made aware of risks and hazards through:

Staff and visitors are made aware of risks and hazards through:

What is hazards and risks:

Hazards is anything that has the potential to cause harm.
Risk is the likelihood that harm will be caused by the identified hazard

Risk control is about minimising danger and risk assessment is about recognising what is likely to cause damage or danger.

Balance approach to risk assessment

Risk assessment Younger children Older children
Toys age appropriate Not allowed to play with toys that small pieces as there may be danger of choking. Manage risk by observing and supervising children playing with smaller toys.

Giving them an opportunity to learn how to play safely with these toys.
Water Manage risk by observing and supervising children playing with smaller toys.

Giving them an opportunity to learn how to play safely with these toys.

Manage risk by allowing child to play with water , but under supervision.
Riding a bike Tricyle for the younger children Bicycle
Ensure larger bikes have stabilisers
Playing outdoor In winter allow children to play outside, but ensure they are wearing coat, hat and gloves. Do not allow if it is raining or child is unwell.
In winter months , ensure children are wearing coats , hats or gloves when playing outside.
Do not allow if it is raining heavily or if child is unwell.
Climbing frame
Walking up stairs
Physically support children during climbing activity or going up the stairs.
Crossing the road

Wearing helmet

Wearing seat belts
Showing and teaching children to look both ways when crossing the road.

Show children and teach children to look both ways when crossing the road and explain why.

Teach children and teenagers to wear helmets when riding a bike outdoor.

Stress the importance of wearing seatbelt to teenager drivers.,br>

Importance of balance approach to risk management:

Importance of balance approach to risk management:
Dilemma between rights and choices of children and young people

EYFS Health and Safety
Principle Statutory framework 'Early Years Foundation Stage' (EYFS) are a set of standards that focus on the learning, development and care of chidlren from birth to five years old.

The EYFS is implemented by practitioners in the setting to provide an experience that supports their care, learning and development in a health and safe environment.

Children safety is paramount.
Dilemma Advantages Balance between keeping children and young people safe, but at the same time encourage them to take risks during activities in order to experience and learn about what is safe and not.

Taking risk encourge children and young people to become more confident in themselves.

Make them more aware of their capabilities.

Children must have the opportunity to learn to assess risks.

Not put children under any thing that will cause then harm.

Provide equal opportunities of risk taking to disable children too, although restricted , but in a safe and supervised enviroment.

First aider availble in setting.

Explore risks in order to have a better learning opportunity and new experience that enable them to have a better development.

Policies and procedures for accidents, incidents, illnesses and emergencies

Policy Procedure Example
Risk Assessments Checking doors are locked.

Checking toys are not broken or dirty.

Checking floors are clean and not wet or slippery.

1. Before nursery opens, use the check list to carry out the risk assessment of premises, equipment and toys.

2. Once each item is checked then sign off.

If there is a risk of harm then record on paper and report to the supervisor or manager.

  • If doors are open, then lock them

  • If floors are wet, then wipe it.

  • If toys are dirty then clean them.

  • If toys are broken then discard them, and order new ones.



A fall with grazed knees.

A fall leaving child unconscious
1. Wipe the area clean, put plaster if needed
2. Comfort child
3. Record in accident book: date, time, accident, action taken, sign by you and the manager.
4. Give the accident slip to parents at the end of the day.
1. Call for the First Aider who will give first aid
2. Phone for an ambulance
3. Contact Parents and give details of accident, action taken and provide name and address of hospital where child may be taken.
4. Record in accident book: date, time and action taken

Burst pipe causing flooding.

Missing child.
1. Inform the manager
2. Manager contacts Environmental Agency
3. Children taken to a safer room
4. Contact parents to collect their child
5. Incident recorded: date, time and action taken
1. Check the garden, front and all connecting rooms
2. Bring other children inside and lock the doors
3. Inform the manager
4. Manager will phone the police
5. Contact parents
6. Incident recorded: date, time, incident and action taken
Emergencies Fire 1. Evacuate the children from the building through the fire exits into the garden.
2. Gather the children at an assembly point.
3. Take the register to check all the children are present. If anyone is missing, then tell the manager.
4. Manager to call the fire brigade
5. Children taken to a safer environment
6. Contact parents
7. Record incident: date, time and action taken

Childhood Illnesses

Illnesses Signs Symptoms
Meningitis Purple rash , high temperature Severe headache, vomiting, stiff neck, dislike of bright lights and drowsiness.
Need immediate medical attention
Measles Runny nose and water eyes, swollen eyelids and sneezing.
Red eyes and sensitivity to light.
Tiny greyish-white spots in the mouth and throat.
Loss of appetite.
Cold and cough with sore throat and a fever. Tiredness and irritability.
After few days red-brown spotty rash appears which are slightly raised.
Rash begins behind the ears and spread to face and rest of the body.
Diphtheria Fever (body temperature of 38 or above), chill pale blue skin, swollen glands in the neck.
Sore throat, breathing difficulty, cough, headache and difficulty swallowing. Fatigue
Chicken pox Red itchy rash which form blisters and then after couple of day it forms scabs.

Causes: varicella-zoster virus and is contagious.
Fever, abdominal pain, sore throat and headache. Chicken pox is contagious, so keep child at home for 5 -7 days and until the blister have crusted.
Fever Looks pale, not want to eat, irritable, cold hands and feet.

Body temperature 38 degrees centigrade. Causes: common cold or flu.

Ear, bladder and kidney infection.
Feel tired, feel shivery, feeling generally unwell.

Medical attention needed.
Diarrhoea Frequent water and runny bowel movements Causes: allergies or intolerance to certain foods.

Food poisoning or polluted water due to infection: virus, bacteria or parasite.

Contagious can spread from person to person.
Fever, vomiting and sometimes blood or mucous in baby's poo and severe stomach cramps.
Bleeding Nose bleed, cuts and grazes
Profuse bleeding: need medical attention
Vomiting Fever and swollen abdomen, pale skin

Causes: In babies: swallowing lots of air, food allergy or milk intolerance.

Infection of the gut caused by bacteria or virus.
Dizziness, fuzziness and sleepiness.
Floppy, irritable, loss of appetite.
Severe tummy pain or headache and stiff neck. Diarrhoea.
Whooping cough Breathing difficulty, whooping noise after coughing
Cold and cough which gets worse and causes breathing difficulty.
Asthma Shortness of breath, wheezing, persistent cough, throat clearing

Coughing, fatigue, restless sleep, runny nose, itchy eyes
Unconsciousness Not responding, eyes closed, drowsiness, cannot be woken.
Causes: fall, seizures, medical condition, pain, shock or fear.
If breathing, put in recovery position until help arrives.
Call ambulance.
If not breathing call ambulance immediately and give CPR if qualified or experienced. Urgent medical attention.
Seizures Body may go stiff or arms and legs will jerk for several minutes or become floppy.

Eyes may roll up and lips become blue.
Convulsion, visual loss or blurring, panic, fear, breathing difficulty, heart racing, tremors, unable to move.

Urgent medical attention.


DFE (2014) Development Matters in the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS)

DFE (2014). Statutory framework for the early years foundation stage

DEF(2014). Early years (under 5s) foundation stage framework (EYFS)

DFE (2014) Keeping children safe in Out of hours provisions

DFE(2014) Early Years Outcomes

Parents - guide to EYFS (2014)

What to expect and when (2014)

The British Association for Early Childhood Education
(Supported by DFE)

Every Child Matters 2003)

Effective Pre-school and Primary Education 3-11 Project (2003-2008)

DFE (2008) Effective Pre-School and Primary Education 3-11 Project (EPPE 3-11)

Parliament (2003) Every Child Matters

Tassoni et al (2010) Level 3 Diploma Children and Young People's
Workforce (Early Learning and Childcare). Pearson: Harlow Essex

Caroline Meggit et al (2011) CACHE Level 3 Children and Young People's
Workforce Diploma: Early Learning and Child Care.
Hodder Education: London