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Children & Young People's Workforce L2

CCLD MU 2.2: Supporting transitions

This unit is about supporting children and young people experiencing changes in their lives.

The table below shows some common and unusual changes children and teenagers go through and it briefly describes the various kinds of provisions that can be available to care, assist and support them.

Transitions Problems experienced Support Give examples of other types of support
Going to nursery for the first time Unable to settle in.
Crying constantly.
Not interacting with anyone.
Allow parent to stay with child at the beginning until child settles.

Initially allow child to bring their favourite toy that they are attached to.

Allocate a key worker who can give one-to-one support to the child and encourage bonding.


Moving from primary to junior school. Feel anxious and scared of new environment and new faces.
Feel alone and lost because they are not familiar with the new building and feel isolated if they don't know anyone.
Arrange best friends to be in the same class.

Join a buddy friend who can show them around and be their friend.

Arrange visits to the new school before commencing new term.


Bereavement (loss of loved one). Feel angry.
Feel depressed.
Unable to sleep.
Loss of appetite.
Withdrawal from interacting with others.
Arrange to see a counsellor.

Family members spend more time with the child.

Other close relatives talk and listen to the child.


Teenage pregnancy Feel frightened.

Feel anxious.

Behave anti-socially.

Information, advice and guidance from family centres.

Information from internet and library.


Family support groups. Sex education from education centres.

Parental support.


Childhood to puberty What kind of problem is experienced? What kind of support is available for children about to undergo puberty?


Supporting the development of children and young people

Children's development can be supported through setting up activities that can stimulate their every sense and help them to develop holistically.

The following factors need to be considered when planning and preparing activities:

Below is a table illustrating the various activities that can be used to promote learning and development. Activities can be set up by an adult who is in control of how the child interacts during the activity.

Type of activity Role of adult Role of child Example
Adult-led Chooses resources and equipment in setting up activities and task.

Asking questions, guiding and supporting children through the task or activities.
Active participation

Child involved and doing the activity
Cooking, or tasting.

Using equipment that could be dangerous and needs supervision.

Involves climbing frames or gymnastic equipment.
Child – initiated No guidance or suggestions from adults on how resources supplied should be use.
Children make own decision on how they use equipment and resources.

Active participation
Choosing wooden blocks.

Choose who to play with.

Pretend play with other children.
Structured Resources carefully selected to facilitate learning.

Provide instructions on how to do the activity.

Adult leads, monitors and supervises children during activity Adult ask questions.
Children follow instructions from adults. Doing learning task: numeracy, reading

Story telling

Using material
Spontaneous No role of adult Children naturally create an activity from the resources around them or use imagination.

Children make their own decision about how resources are used.
Pretend play

Imaginative play


Assessing developmental needs of children and young people

How do we know children are developing normally in all areas?

By simply observing children we can check their development and learning that is in line with general expectations.

When observing a child or group of children the following information should be recorded:

There are different techniques used to observe children's learning and development.

The table below illustrates the main techniques used. and gives examples too.

Observation Techniques

Method Description Example
Narrative or descriptive Writing everything you see in detail. The data is factual.

Recording information continuously for half an hour or one hour.
Observing child playing with toys or playing with other children.

Recording what they say and how they respond to others.
Check list Pre-prepared list of skills or competencies that a child can do.

Suitable for checking physical development.
Threading beads
Drawing with crayons or pencil
Completing a 10 piece jigsaw puzzle
Cutting out shapes with scissors

Catching a ball
Climbing a frame
Riding a bike
Time sample Chart format is used to record specific and selected information at chosen time intervals.
Frequency of playing with certain toys.

Observing children's mood in the mornings or in the afternoons.

Observing social behaviour every 15 minutes for 1 hour.

Observing behaviour at different play locations in the nursery: every 10 minutes for one hour

Observing behaviour at lunch time: every 5 minutes for half an hour.

Observing indoor or outdoor activities every 15 minutes over a period of 1 hour.
Event sample A chart format is used to record specific actions, incident or behaviour observed whenever it occurs. Observe aggressive behaviour such as spitting, biting or hitting other children.

Observe emotional behaviour such as crying or sulking.
Target sample A record sheet is used to note the actions and responses of a particular child over a continuous period of time.

Observation is recorded every minute for 10 minutes.
Target sample is often used to learn about child's social and language interaction.
Identify another method that is used in your setting Describe another method used in your setting Give an example

Click on the pdf files below to see samples of 'observation forms':

Time sample
Event sample
Target child
Diary Observation Record