Children & Young People' Workforce L2

TDA 2.2: Safeguarding

This unit is about protecting and preventing children from any form of abuse. Abuse comes in many shapes that are visible and hidden, so it is important that carers are able to identify the types of abuse and recognise the symptoms, hence take measures to safeguard children and young people. See the table showing the consequences of abuse and the support that is available.

There are laws that give children the right to be safe from any form of danger, harm or abuse. The roles of the agencies involved in protecting and promoting the welfare of children are outlined in the table below. But first lets define 'safeguard'.

Safeguarding in the context of childcare means protecting and preventing children and young people from being abuse.

  • Protection refers to guarding children who have been abused.

  • Prevention refers to stopping children from being abused.

There are laws that give children the right to be safe from any form of harm or abuse. These Laws are also referred to as Legislations or Acts that have to be observed by parents, child minders, practitioners, teachers, other organisation working with children and the general public.

The table below outlines the Legislations and policies that safeguard children.

Legislation Aim Give example of how the legislations are applied in your setting to safeguard children.
Children Act 1989 Every setting must have safeguarding policy and procedures for staff to follow. Children's welfare is of the utmost importance Work in partnership with local and national agencies to promote the well-being of all children


Children Act 2004 Ensure that every setting including care, educational, NHS, social services and the police work together to safeguard and promote children's well-being. Reduce levels of educational failure, ill health, substance abuse, crime and anti-social behaviour.


Childcare Act 2006 & Working Together to Safeguard Children 2006 Ensure that local authorities, NHS and job centre work together to improve the outcomes of all children up to age 5. (promote welfare of children.

Provide high quality education and care for all children from birth to age 5.


Every Child Matters (ECM) Ensure children and young people have the chance to be healthy, stay safe, enjoy and achieve, make a positive contribution and experience economic well-being.


Forms of abuse

The table below shows the various forms of abuse and how to recognise them. The table also shows how abuse affects children in the short-term and long-term. The last column outlines the practical support that is available to victims of abuse.

Type of abuse Examples Signs &
Consequences /
Physical Punching slapping pushing kicking pinching.
Bite marks

Unexplained weight loss.
Withdrawn and quiet.

Aggressive towards other children.

Shows aggressive acts during role play scenes.
Long term withdrawal

Lack confidence

Poor social life

Counselling in person
Emotional Ignoring

Constantly criticising or belittling


Threats of harm

Yelling and swearing frequently

Name calling

Fear, depression or loss of sleep.

Low self-esteem

Lack of confidence and anxiety

Increased levels of confusion
Attention seeking behaviour

Seeking affection and being clingy.

Difficulty in socialising with other children.

Tell lies

Sucks thumb, rocks to and fro and plays with own hair.

Withdrawn behaviour
Difficulty forming relationships with people.

Lonely and isolated from the community.

Join support groups
Neglect Deprived of food and water Malnutrition


Dirty clothing/bedding

Lack of personal care

Untreated medical problems
Parents rarely present in dropping and collecting children from nursery.

Older siblings caring for their younger siblings.

Children mention they are unsupervised at home.
Stunted physical development

chronic Illnesses

Learning delays

Medical and special education support
Sexual Touching or being intimate. Bruises or scratches.

Difficulty walking or sitting.

Soreness around the genitals.

Itching or pain in genital area.

Discharge from genital area.

Torn, stained or bloody underwear.
Sucking thumb and rocking.

Displaying sexual behaviour in their play.

Expresses knowledge of adult sexual behaviour.

Forming relationships with people

Not able to trust anyone

Counselling support
Bullying Give an example of bullying

Identify signs and symptoms of bullying

How does bullying affect behaviour

What are the consequences?

Safeguarding Policies and Procedures in Child Care Settings

Policy Procedure Examples of other policies inyour setting
Suspected or apparent abuse Any mark or injury on the child's body should be investigated.

Ask the child or young person what has happened.

With regards to babies and toddlers talk to the parents.

If there is still concern, then pass information on to the manager and safe guarding officer.


Disclosure policy Listen to the child carefully and do not ask questions.

Reassure child that you believe what has been said.

Tell child you will protect them.

Tell child you will need to talk to other adults in order to help him or her. D not promise the child you will keep the information a secret.

Reassure the child that he/she is not in trouble and that he and she has acted properly.

Once the conversation has ended, make notes before talking to anyone else: Record date, time and the factual details of what the child has revealed.

Ensure to sign the notes.


Nappy changing Gloves and aprons must be worn

Cover area with clean paper

Soiled nappy must be placed in a sack and disposed in bin lined with plastic liner

Never rinse or wash non-disposable nappies

Two people must be present during nappy changing and door must be left open

Dispose of gloves and apron and wash hands thoroughly


Mobile Phones Mobile phones should be switched off during working hours and left in lockers or hand bags. Office phone should be used to make work related phone calls


Visitors aabbcc


Safeguarding children from internet abuse

Digital abuse Possible risk
of abuse
Consequences Ways of
digital abuse



Paedophiles chat on line, make friends, build trust by lying and deceiving children and young people about their identity.

Sharing inappropriate images of sexual nature between abusers

On-line game abuse between other gamers

Cyber bullying :
Threaten, embarrass or tease.

Talking to strangers and revealing personal information: mobile numbers and pictures of themselves.

Making sexual comments.
Feel lonely
Feel unhappy
Feel frightened

Feel unsafe

Low-self esteem

Not attend school

Keep computer
in a family room.

Report anything
suspected to police.

Monitor games

Schools supervise the use of computers and
control access to websites.

Have pass word
access to computer

Use software to
filter out

Teach children and
young people to keep personal details safe.
Mobiles Inappropriate text messaging.

Sending inappropriate images.

Taking indecent pictures.

Bullying and teasing.
Feel unhappy
Feel frightened
Lose confidence

Become withdrawn

Not attend school

Explain to child not to give mobile phone number to strangers or people he/she does not fully trust.

Agencies involved in safeguarding the welfare of children and young people

The safety and welfare of children depends on agencies which work together to provide an effective service.

The table below identifies some of the specific agencies and outlines their responsibility in preventing and protecting children and young people from all forms of abuse.

Agency Role
Child exploitation and Online Protection Centre

To eradicate the sexual abuse of children.
National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children

Provides a Child Phone Line

Provide 24 hour online service

Provide a help line for people who are worried about a child.

Provides services to support families and children.

Shares expertise with other professionals.
Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS) checks

Helps organisations identify people who are unsuitable for certain types of work involving contact with children.

Does criminal checks on individual who want to work with children.
Police Work closely with children's social care to protect children from harm.

Take immediate action if children are in immediate danger.

Attend court to give evidence when a crime has been committed.

Social services

Find out their role

Kids safety

Find out their role

Click on the quiz below and see how much you have learned.
TDA 2.2: Safeguarding

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