Children & Young People's Workforce L2

Mu 2.8 Contribute to the support of the positive environments for children and young people

This unit is about creating a positive environment for children that meets the EYFS requirements. Promoting a safe and happy environment is crucial for their learning, development and well-being.

EYFS requirement for a positive environment are:

  • Promoting safety
  • Promoting happiness
  • Promoting health
  • Promoting learning and development
  • Providing a suitable environment
  • Providing variety of resources
  • Understanding that every child is unique
Supporting a safe environment Providing variety of resources Provisions for individual needs Giving sense of belonging Promoting learning and development
Safe outdoor and indoor area Bike, toys and artwork suitable for different age group. Toilets for disabled children. Smile and welcome children Playing board games Playing with dough
Pleasant room temperature and adequate ventilation. Water proof gear and aprons available for water activities. Ramp for wheel chairs Listen and show interest Baking and cooking
Fire drill, smoke alarm and emergency equipment available. Quiet area for reading books and doing puzzles. Angled spoons Display work of children Role play activities
Appropriate toilets Storage facility for and pit and water. Adapt activities:
Sand tray on table
Display photos with names Story time Singing nursery rhymes

Personal Hygiene

Conditions Descriptions Symptoms / causes Prevention / treatment
Head lice Tiny grey-brown insects that live in the hair of a person’s scalp and feeds of the blood from the scalp.

They spread by climbing from the hair of an infected person to the hair of someone else.
Itchy scalp Rashes may appear on the back of ear or neck.

Head to head contact with an already infested person during play, games or sport activity.

Using infested combs and brushes or wearing infested hats or ribbons.
Medical lotions and sprays. Do wet combing using a special fine tooth comb / lice comb (‘bug-busting’).

Avoid sharing combs, brushes, clips, headsets and hats.

Avoid head to head contacts.

Skin problems:
Acne is an inflammation of the skin that causes red spots, bumps, whiteheads and blackhead.

Acne can appear on the face and other parts of the body.
Painful pimples, whitehead and blackheads.
Redness, itchy, flaky and peeling skin.

Blocked oil glands in the skin.
Poor diet
changes in hormone levels
Wash face twice daily to remove impurities and dead skin cells.

Apply topical gels, creams or lotion.

Eat a balance diet. avoid fried food.

Tooth decay Holes in the tooth cavities.

Plaque (bacteria) forms acid that eat away at the tooth enamel and creates a hole in the tooth.
Tooth ache or an infection (abscess).

Resulting from acid attacks from food that become trapped between teeth.

Not brushing teeth properly
Not brushing teeth in the morning and before going to bed
Brush teeth twice a day.
Floss teeth daily.
Use fluoride based tooth paste.

Visit dentist twice a year
Body odour Body odour is an unpleasant smell that can occur when a person sweats. Sweat and smell.
Sweat and bacteria.

The bacteria that live on the skin breaks down the sweat into acids which causes the smell.
Bath or shower daily with soap.
Use deodorants or antiperspirants.

Wear clean clothes

Balanced diet

A healthy diet is one that contains a balance of the following nutrients in a meal:

  • Protein
  • Carbohydrates
  • Fibre
  • Fat
  • Minerals and vitamins

The table below shows food that contains the nutrients and its function in promoting a healthy body.

Nutrient Food Function Deficiency
Protein Fish: Salmon, tuna, sardines, prawns
Meat: lamb, beef, pork
Poultry: chicken, duck turkey
Beans, lentils, soya, tofu and eggs
Nuts: almond, walnut, cashew, peanuts
Needed for growth and tissue repair. Lack of protein can lead to muscle wasting, fatigue, brittle nails and hair loss
Carbohydrate Flour: bread, rolls, croissant, tortillas,
chapattis, purees, pizzas, pies, cakes and biscuits.
Pasta: spaghetti, macaroni, lasagne
Potatoes: chips, roast, mash
Provides energy. Carbohydrate deficiency can result in reduced energy levels, hence fatigue and weakness.

Difficulty in fighting off disease and healing wounds.
Fats Dairy: cheese, cream, butter, milk , yogurt, ice cream, lard.

Nuts: almond, walnut, cashew, peanut, pecan, brazil, hazelnut.

Oil, margarine, sauces and salad dressings.
Provides warmth and energy Dry skin, hair loss, scaly skin, loss of menstruation.

Poor absorption of vitamins and minerals
Fibre Cereal, nuts, fruits and vegetables. Helps to keep the digestive system healthy. Lack of fibre in diet may cause constipation.
Calcium Dairy: cheese, milk, cream, yogurt

Fish: canned salmon & sardines with edible bones.
Formation of teeth and bones. Lack of calcium can cause tooth decay and brittle bones.
Magnesium Nuts: almonds, cashew, hazelnut, walnut, pecans, brazil, peanuts.
Sun flower and pumpkin seeds
Fish, beans and lentils, broccoli and spinach
Needed for bone development and nerve and muscle function. Loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, fatigue and weakness.

Numbness, cramps, seizures and constipation.
Potassium Bananas, potatoes , citrus fruits and green vegetables. Lowers blood pressure. Abdominal cramps, constipations.
Fainting and palpitations
Iron Red meat: beef, lamb, venison
Vegetable: broccoli , green beans, peas

Fish, eggs, green beans , peas
Carries oxygen to the cells. Lack of iron may cause fatigue or anaemia.
Zinc Sea food: Prawns
Meat: beef, lamb
Poultry: chicken, duck, turkey

Spinach and nuts
Maintains a healthy immune system.

Keeps healthy skin.
Lack of zinc may cause more colds and vulnerable to fighting off infection.
Vitamin A Carrots , sweet potatoes, dark leafy greens, cabbage, okra and aubergines, red pepper

Fruit: cantaloupe melon
Dairy: milk, butter, cheese and eggs,br> Fish: tuna fish
Good for sight.
New cell growth, healthy hair, skin and tissue.
Vision in dim light
Poor night visions.

Difficulty fighting infection.
Vitamin B12 Dairy: milk and yogurt
Red Meat: beef, lamb and liver
Shell fish: prawns
Formation of red blood cells.
Building proteins in the body.
Function of nervous tissues.
Stomach upset and weight loss. Diarrhea or constipation.
Weakness and tiredness.
Easy bruising and bleeding
Vitamin C Fruits: mangoes, oranges, strawberries, pears , apples, guava, bananas, melons and grapes
Vegetables: mushrooms, cucumber
Healthy skin, hair and nails.
Helps heal wounds.
Scurvy ( skin condition)
Easy bruising
Muscle and joint pain
Tiredness and weakness
Vitamin D Dairy: milk, cheese
Fish: salmon and sardines
Formation of healthy bones. Bone pain and muscle weakness.
Rickets and arthritis in adulthood.


Food Allergies Signs & symptoms Action Alternative food
Dairy product

Milk, cheese, cream, ice cream and yogurt
Lactose intolerance- inability to digest lactose enzyme found in milk products.

Difficult breathing, itchy skin, rashes.

Stomach pain, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting.

Blood pressure, swelling around the mouth or in the throat.
Hospital treatment needed immediately.

Get advice on dietary concerns available from:
GP, health advisors , early years advisors.
Leaflets from clinics and hospitals
Soya milk
Rice milk
Oat milk
Lactose-free milk
Eggs Food allergen Stomach pains, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting or itchy around the mouth.

Difficulty breathing or rapid heartbeat or low blood pressure.

Hives, eczema, flushing or swelling.
Hospital treatment needed immediately. Eggless pies,pastries and cakes


Citrus fruits
Food allergen Difficulty breathing, high blood pressure.

Stomach pain , nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea

Rashes, itchy skin, swelling around the mouth.
Hospital treatment needed immediately. Apples, bananas, pears

Peanuts, walnuts, almonds and coconut
Food allergen Stomach cramps, diarrhoea,
nausea, vomiting.

Watery eyes, runny nose, sneezing, rash and tongue may swell.
Hospital treatment needed immediately. Chick peas, pumpkins or sunflower seeds

Soy products
Wheat flour

Bread, pastry
biscuits, cakes, cereals
Allergic to gluten found in the flour which prevents the normal absorption of food ( coeliac disease) Diarrhoea, abdominal pain, bloating Hospital treatment needed immediately. Gluten free products.

Oat cakes, rice cakes, corn cakes
Honey Food allergen Coughing or wheezing.
Itchy, watery eyes or a runny nose.
Eczema , vomiting or diarrhoea may sometimes occur Swelling of the face, lips, or throat; may indicate a severe type of allergic reaction known as anaphylaxis.
Medical emergency. Golden seal

Sweet syrups

Click on the pdf document to view a sample of a weekly healthy eating menu


DFE (2014) Development Matters in the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS)

DFE (2014). Statutory framework for the early years foundation stage

DEF(2014). Early years (under 5s) foundation stage framework (EYFS)

DFE (2014) Keeping children safe in Out of hours provisions

DFE(2014) Early Years Outcomes

Parents - guide to EYFS (2014)

What to expect and when (2014)

The British Association for Early Childhood Education
(Supported by DFE)

Every Child Matters 2003)

Effective Pre-school and Primary Education 3-11 Project (2003-2008)

DFE (2008) Effective Pre-School and Primary Education 3-11 Project (EPPE 3-11)

Parliament (2003) Every Child Matters

Tassoni et al (2010) Level 3 Diploma Children and Young People's
Workforce (Early Learning and Childcare). Pearson: Harlow Essex

Caroline Meggit et al (2011) CACHE Level 3 Children and Young People's
Workforce Diploma: Early Learning and Child Care.
Hodder Education: London